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Events Recorded on the Calendar Stick Kept at San Xavier Del Bac

The symbols shown here are about one-fourth their size on the actual stick. Where there are solid patches of color, cross hatching has been used to indicate red, solid to indicate blue. It was impossible to indicate color for the single lines. The recorder explained that lines indicating summer events usually are blue, winter events red, but this was not found to hold. The parallel marks at either side of a symbol are gashes cut with a knife and uncolored.

1839-40—This was the year when "the world went wrong." There was fighting in Mexico 1 and the calendar keeper was so impressed and frightened that he began the stick. During the hottest part of the summer a Papago named Take-a-Horse killed an Enemy.

1840-44—Four peaceful years.

1844-45—Snow, to the height of the present houses!

1845-48—Three peaceful years.


1848-49—A disease killed many of the children.2 The people from Burnt Seeds and Saddle Hanging had gone to Sonora to harvest beans for the Mexicans. There, they fought with the Enemy and some People and some Enemies were killed.

1849-50—A peaceful year.

1850-51—In the autumn, the people from Burnt Seeds came to the Hollow Place to hold a Skipping Dance.3 When it was over, a Mexican came from the Foot of the Black Hill and said that there were Enemies there. So all went and fought the Enemy.4 They killed some of them and the killers remained for four days' purification. When the four days were over, they returned to the Hollow Place and held a scalp dance. Now the Hollow Place wanted to sing for the Burnt Seeds and be paid in turn. But the Burnt Seeds people were going to Sonora to work for the winter, so they said that instead of being sung for at home they would bring their food back to the Hollow Place, which was on their way to Sonora. They went home and collected stores of cactus seed, cholla joints, and dried Spanish bayonet fruit and brought them to the Hollow Place. The people of the Hollow Place sang for them and were given the food and then the Burnt Seeds people went to Sonora. All of them went, men, women, and children, and they took all their

property. They harvested for the Mexicans and earned corn and beans to take home.

After the harvest, they all started home again and got as far as Rotten Ground. Just beyond there, they camped and saw Enemy tracks. So they left the women in camp and followed. They came up with the Enemies behind Black Hill and there they fought, and Take-a-Horse killed another Enemy. The Enemies had with them a child whom they had stolen at Mountain-Tied-in-the-Middle and during the fight the child hid under some straw. When the fight was over he ran home. The men went back to camp, got the women and all went home to Burnt Seeds. There they had four days purification for the killer and then the scalp dance.

1851-52—During the summer, many of the People went to Sonora and lived there, working for their food. In Sonora there was a disease which gave people cramps all over the body, so that they died in twenty-four hours.5 Two evil medicine men went to Sonora and brought back that disease to the Hollow Place. When the people heard of it, they all scattered to the hills. There were two good medicine men at the Hollow Place and they camped under some trees, which are standing there yet, and built a wall between them and Sonora to keep out that disease. But the Indians out in the desert already had the disease, and these two good men, as they worked, found it was being spread by those evil men who had been to Sonora. They saw that their wall could not help them and they cried. They told the people, and the people chased those evil medicine men out into the desert and killed them with arrows. Then the sickness stopped.

In the middle of winter the Enemy came suddenly to Mesquite Root.6 They killed nearly all the men and took many women and children away with them.7 They tell

that on the night before they came, the Enemy sent scouts to spy outside the village. Out there, there was one woman alone in a menstruation hut, far from the houses. She heard the sound of the creeping spies and she called to her husband. But he was far away and did not hear and, of course, she could not leave the menstruation hut; so she could not warn the people. At dawn, the Enemy came and they made such evil magic that the people in the village thought it was visiting friends coming to sing for them. So they did not know it was Enemies until they were in the village. Then the People put all the women and children into a stone house they had built, with an old man to guard them and the old women to keep them quiet. The men stayed outside and fought, and they were all killed.

One man went to find his little daughter, who was playing and it was too late to get her into the house. He was on his horse but he could not take her up with him for the Enemy would see her and he knew they always took little girls. So he told her to crouch and run under the horse, and he walked the horse away. The Enemy shot him in the right arm so that he could not pull the bow string, but he pulled it with his teeth. At last, he and the horse were both killed, but the child hid under a heap of brush for all little girls were taught to hide that way. She stayed for a day and a night and when the Enemy were gone, she came out.

In that time, all the men had been killed. The women were in the stone house and the old man who guarded them was killed too. But before that happened, one woman sneaked out and ran to get help. She ran as far as the Rotten Ground and there she hid all night under the weeds in a wash. In the morning, she ran on again, got to the Burnt Seeds and told the people. The men from the Burnt Seeds got their bows and arrows and came quickly, for Mesquite Root was their sister village. But when they got there, the people were all dead, lying in and out of the houses, and the Enemy had gone away with the younger women and the children. So the Burnt Seeds men dragged the bodies into the houses and set fire to everything because that is what must be done to all that has been touched by the enemy. Then they chased the Enemies, but they could not catch them.


The Enemy were going east and they had got almost to Turtle-between-the-Rocks, where they camped with their captives. They had one pregnant woman and the next morning they cut up that woman and took out the baby and then cut up both the bodies. The woman's mother-in-law was old and they did not want her for a captive, but she came too because she wanted to suffer the same tortures as her son's wife. So when they cut up that young woman, the old one took out her knife and fought them and they killed her.

Then the Enemy went on toward their home in the mountains. They were afraid the People would follow and they said to the captive children: "If you see your relatives coming, you run toward them." Because they thought the People would not shoot for fear of hurting the children, and they would run away. But the People did not catch up. The Enemy went through a pass called The End of the Black Hills,8 which led into their own country, and after that no one could find them.

1852-53—A few people from Mesquite Root had been away from the village and had not been killed. Those people could not go back to live where so many had died; so they camped at Grassy Well. They were very frightened. That winter they held the prayerstick festival,9 which should be held every four years, to keep the world going right, for so Elder Brother told us.

1853-54—There were Whites near the Hollow Place and they had many sheep. Some Enemies 10 worked herding those sheep, and some of the People too. The Enemy in the

mountains came to the Hollow Place and gave warning. So the People at the Hollow Place got on their horses and went out to help the herders fight.11 It would take the Enemy fighters two sleeps to get to where the herders were, but the People could get there in one sleep. So they started in the morning and loped their horses all day. At night they camped and put their medicine to work to see how near the Enemy were. The medicine man said : "They will come to-morrow in the early morning." So before dawn they sent a man to a nearby hill to watch, and he came running back and said: "They are coming." There was a valley in that place, narrow at both ends and high at the sides. So the People climbed up on the sides and let the Enemy enter the valley. Then they shouted and rushed out and they killed all but two.

When the fight was over, they sent a man to the Hollow Place with the news. They sent another man out to the desert because the wife of one man who had killed an Enemy was there, and she must come in for purification. When she and her escort came to White Well, they met some People who had been roasting mescal, and now they were coming home. Most of the men had wanted to stay longer but an old man in the party had hurried them home. They were angry because if they had not returned, they could

have met the Enemy. So they held a meeting and scolded that old man.

1854-55—White men came to the foot of the Black Hill and fought with the Mexicans. They burned the Mexican stores and took possession.12

1855-56—A man from Willows killed an Enemy. It was in the dry season and there was no water at the Willows for his baths of purification. So his guardian brought him to Grassy Well and after four days all the Willows came there and held the scalp dance.

1856-57—A White agency was started for the People at Red Mountain : (near Arivaca, on the border) and a white man, who was called Soft Hat, appointed the chiefs.13


Chief of them all was to be Many-Skirts, the chief at Narrow Place. The other chiefs were : The Gambler, Mesquite Root; Pea, at the Narrow Place; Gold-Ears, at Owl Cry; At-the-Foot-of-the-Sunset, at Willows. The White men said the government would help them and civilize them and from now on they were to live by laws. The White government would build schools and would educate the children. The chiefs agreed but they said : "The White people must not bother us." An old man made a speech and told the Whites :

Every stick and stone on this land belongs to us. Everything that grows on it is our food—cholla, prickly pear, giant cactus, Spanish bayonet, mesquite beans, amaranth, all the roots and greens. The water is ours, the mountains. There is gold in the mountains. Everywhere I go I walk on gold; I lie down at night as though on a bed of gold, my head rests on gold and silver. These mountains, I say, are mine and the Whites shall not disturb them.

1857-58—The Whites and the People together started taming the Enemy.

1858-59—The prayerstick festival was held at the Narrow Place. Some of the People went to get corn from Mexico and, coming back, they camped on the other side of the Rotten Ground. Early next morning, a few of them started before the rest. The Enemy were watching from a mountain top, and as the People were passing among some trees, where they could not see them, the Enemy rushed down and attacked. One of the People was killed.

1859-60—At the drinking ceremony at Burnt Seeds, two evil medicine men were killed. It was a good medicine man who informed about them. This good man had been called in to treat a sick man and found that he was bewitched. So he told the man's relatives and told who the sorcerer was. They waited until the drinking ceremony, got the sorcerer drunk and killed him. His brother, who was also a medicine man, was looking for him. He met the band of killers and, when they found who he was, they killed him also.


1860-61--A White man came to Dead Cottonwood and started a ranch, but the chiefs of the People got together and ordered him out. He asked for three days to make ready and they consented. On the third day he started. When he came to Pond in a Gully,14 the Enemy saw him from the hilltop where they were watching. They left their moccasins and water jugs on a little hill and ran through the trees to head him off. When he saw them coming, he let his cattle loose and he and his peons hid under the wagon, with their guns between the wheel spokes. The Enemy shot at him from the trees and one nearly got him. But the White man saw that Enemy peeping out and he shot him through the forehead, so the bullet came out the back of his head. Another Enemy was badly wounded and then the Enemies ran away.

The People heard about this and they went to enjoy the dead Enemies. They danced around the bodies and called them names and from those names, they got nicknames themselves. One man laughed at the ribs of the dead Enemy and said they were big so they called that man Ribs. Another said the dead man's head was smooth like a gourd so ever after he was called Gourd Head.

During that same time, another band of the People, from Coyote Sitting saw the Enemy tracks and trailed them. When they camped that night, their medicine man "looked" to see what was ahead, and reported : "Ahead, it is all dark, nothing happens. But, behind, there are Enemies. They fall when we look at them." So the People turned around and went back to Coyote Sitting and there they heard the news. They went to see the dead Enemies but they did not joke, for the first party was there waiting to give them nicknames and these people did not want them.

1861-62—The White people at the Hollow Place had made soldiers and stationed down near the border, on this side, to watch the White people's horses. Enemies came and stole the horses but no one went after them.15


1862-63—The prayerstick festival was held at the Narrow Place. When it was over, the Burnt Seeds went to the Narrow Place to sing, and then the Narrow Place sang for the Burnt Seeds. At the Narrow Place there was a great runner, champion at kickball for the Narrow Place, Willows, and Mouth of the Gap. This man had been trained by a famous medicine man who could shoot at a rainbow, cut off a piece and put it on the runner's shoulder, so that he kept ahead of his opponents as a rainbow is always ahead. His name was Champion Man. At Mesquite Root, there was a clever medicine man called Something-Laid-There-Loose and he understood where the Champion Man got his power. The Mesquite Root people wanted this man to train one of their boys to race against the Champion Man but he did not dare. "My power," he said, "is only from Elder Brother, but that of the other trainer comes from the Morning Star." So Mesquite Root sent no runners at all and Champion Man won all the races.

1863-64—Some of the People were behind Turkey Neck Mountain (near San Xavier) , roasting mescal. There they met the Enemy and had a big fight. Two Enemies and one of the People were killed. The People burned their slain warrior as must always be done with any one touched by the enemy, and then they burned all the mescal, saving only enough to eat until they got to the Rotten Ground. There they picked more and roasted it and took it home.


1864-65—The prayerstick festival was held at the Narrow Place and after it there was racing. Champion Man was still the winner. This man used to go alone every morning to practice running on a cleared track in the desert. One day, as he was starting, he heard the sound of something falling and he saw a man standing there, waiting to run with him. That man was an eagle in human form and the eagle is the fastest of all the birds. The champion ran with the man-eagle to the end of the track and back and then the stranger walked away.

This happened four times and the last time the stranger came in eagle form with his wings spread. He said to the champion : "You will be like me, a killer and a runner." Then he took small feathers from his breast and thrust them into the skin of the champion, above the wrists. After a while, feathers began to grow on his arms, almost like wings. So he was the fastest runner among all the People. But, at the command of the eagle, he never told about his vision until he was an old man and could run no longer ; nor did he boast of his power, for people might have found out whence it came, and might have destroyed it.

1865-66—The Enemy came to Saddle Hanging in the time of snow and stole many horses. They camped a little way off and talked among themselves. Some said : "Let us take the horses away now," and some said, "No, for then they will follow us and we do not want to fight, only to find how many there are." So they left the horses and went and told the chief : "There are not enough of the People to bother killing." This the People heard later, for there was, with the Enemy, a woman captured at Mesquite Root and later she returned and told her kinsmen all that the Enemy had done while she was with them.

This is how that woman escaped. The Enemy were in the mountains, roasting mescal, their women with them. So this Desert woman took some of the mescal and hid it for food on her journey. That night she lay down to sleep between two Enemy women, as she always did and she took off the deerskin dress and the moccasins they had given her and put them away across the hut so the old women would be easy, because they would think : "She cannot get those things unless we hear her." So they went to sleep. But the People do not wear deerskin dresses, but only a little skirt, and they travel barefoot, so she did not need those

clothes. She got up in the night while the women were asleep and she went out.16

She went over the hills, past where they had roasted mescal, and she picked up that which she had hidden. Already, when she was at the top of one hill, she heard the Enemy on the top of the hill behind her. They had fire-brands and they were calling. But she kept one hill ahead of them and when it was almost dawn, she found an oak tree, with dead leaves scattered over the ground. So she got under those leaves and stayed while the light lasted. The Enemy could not find her and they went home. Next night, again, she travelled during the dark. She could see that there was a high mountain ahead of her and she climbed it to see how the land lay. By morning, she was descending its farther side. She slept there till afternoon, and, when she awoke, she saw below her smoke from the settlements of the River people (Pima) .

But she was afraid to go there without any clothes; so she waited until dark. She travelled all night and, in the morning, she was drinking water from the river, for she had had no water during her journey. A woman of the River people saw her and called to her husband : "Come here! There is a strange woman drinking and I think it is an Enemy." But the strange woman spoke in the language of the People and so those people took her into their house and the man went and told the chief. Then the chief took her to his house and asked for her story and she told how she had been with the Enemy since she was a little girl, captured at Mesquite Root. So they sent a runner to Mesquite Root and the man who had married her sister came on a horse and took her home. Afterward, when the People were trailing the Enemy, they would take that woman with them to explain the Enemy's ways.

1866-67—There was a man of Worm Pond, who had his fields at the Mouth of the Gap. But over near the mountains of Mulberry Well he kept a storage pit and in it a sealed jar full of shelled corn. It was winter, and he came to get supplies from the pit. He brought a cotton blanket and laid it down outside the pit, and he went in and filled a basket with corn. He dumped the corn on a blanket and went in again, and when he came out, there were Enemy moccasin

tracks in the shelled corn. But there was no one in sight. So he went in again, and when he came out, there were more moccasin tracks. The man thought a spirit was telling him of danger, so he hastened to load the corn into the grass saddle bags on his horse, and he started toward Black Hill. The Enemy ran along the tops of the mountains, watching him, but they did not attack.

The Enemy came along the mountains to Sand Wells and there they saw another of the People, called Ditch-on-the-Back, getting grain from another storage pit. At sundown, he started home, singing, because he was happy with the corn. The Enemy followed, followed, followed. Late at night they got to the Mouth of the Gap, where the man joined his people and they were all calling for rain.17 While they were calling and busy, the Enemy stole all their horses and went away. The Enemy went, and on the way they passed one of the storage pits. There they helped themselves but only, to a very little, just some dried pumpkin and corn for the journey. It was horses and women the Apaches stole, not crops.

Still, the Enemy were going and they came to Worm Pond. There they found horses and each Enemy took one. One Enemy got on a broncho and it bucked him off so the Enemy was angry and shot an arrow that went straight through the horse's body, with the point sticking out at the other side. The horse died. The People followed the Enemy tracks and found the dead horse. But the Enemy had run up the mountains, as they always did. It rained, but they still followed. On top of a mountain they found a flat rock where the Enemy had built a fire. There they heated stones and placed them in rock pockets where rain had collected and thus they had cooked their porridge. While they ate, they could look down and see the People. When they saw them coming, they left their food and ran away over the hills.

1867-68—The Enemy came again to Worm Pond while the People were calling for rain. They took all the horses, even that of the medicine man, who was telling when rain would come. The People chased them but the Enemy climbed the same mountain as the year before and again they got away. When the pursuers came back, the cactus

liquor which they had made for the rain ceremony had turned to vinegar, for it does not keep.

A band of deer hunters, coming through Their Wells, found Enemy tracks with water spilled on the ground and not yet dry. The oldest man of the hunters said : "They will either go to Worm Pond or to Mouth of the Gap," and he sent a man to Worm Pond with the news. The man sent was called Bear. He got a good horse and started galloping but he loitered and did not arrive till evening, and even then he waited to eat before he broke the news. The Worm Pond people sent messengers to all the neighbor villages and they themselves went out to round up their horses. One man had a long hunt for his two white horses. When he found them, the sun was setting, and as he looked toward one of them, between him and the sun, he saw a shadow under it. An Enemy was sitting under the horse, untying its hobbles while another Enemy was on guard behind a sage bush. The man from the People started to run and the guard shot an arrow at him which went through his ear. The Enemy pulled his bow again, but just as he was about to shoot, his horse stumbled in a gopher hole and he missed. The man from the People ran to camp and told how his horses were taken.

A man was chosen to carry the news to the Narrow Place, the Burnt Seeds, and the Willows. Near the Narrow Place, he saw two Enemies riding ahead of him. He gave the war whoop and shot at them. The two Enemy horses were tied together since there had not been enough rope for two bridles, and they started off in opposite directions. The Enemy jumped off and ran away up a mountain. Several bands of the People went out after the Enemy, hunting in different directions. But the medicine man who was with them was helping the Enemy, throwing dirt in their tracks to cover them up. The People assembled at the foot of Agave Bearing Mountain and the Enemy were on the top of it but the medicine man cast such spells on the People that they could not see. Reinforcements came up from Dried-and-Burnt and one of their men said : "Let us climb this mountain. It is easy to climb; I know, for I have chased deer here for many years." But the others, under the spell of the medicine man, refused to climb; so all went home.

Later, people found out about that medicine man. The Mesquite Root woman who was an Enemy prisoner told

how, when the Enemy came home, they said they had expected only death. They were tired and thirsty after running all night, and when they ran up that mountain, they could go no farther. They were waiting for the People to come and kill them. This the woman told later and then the People knew they had been fooled. They asked about that medicine man and they found he had been killing his own people, making them sick by shooting an evil charm into them. This charm is the hollow bone of an eagle wing, filled with something deadly which the medicine man takes from his heart. Though it is real, it can not be seen except by some other medicine man. Such a man saw the evil charm and told the People, so that bad medicine man was killed, but not until he had done much harm.

The small black mark after the event is for the birth of a man called Spoon.

1868-69—The Enemy came to Calabasas in Sonora, where some of the People were working for the Mexicans. The Enemy stole some cattle and ran away up Soapweed Bearing Mountain. But they wanted to show the people of Calabasas what they had done, so they rode, driving the cattle straight past where the People, Mexicans, and Americans were working. All wanted to follow, but the People had only to seize their bows and jump on their horses, while the Americans had to form in line and go through many motions. The People followed the Enemy into a deep canyon and there they heard, for the first time, an Enemy shoot from an iron bow (a musket) . They huddled together and one old man said : "Why don't you scatter?" They scattered and backed away fighting and one old man called Back-to-the-Fire said: "Leave me here!" He was shot twice in the leg and they had to cross a wash, but a man named Girl Follower picked him up, and ran to get his gun so the Enemy would not get it. He used the gun and gave his bow to the wounded man to carry and so, fighting, they went, they went, they went, back to the mouth of the canyon and there they met the Mexicans coming to help.

The Enemy had abandoned one horse on a hilltop—one of their own horses with rawhide and dried meat tied to the saddle. The People and the Mexicans all went after it. There was one of the People named the Diver, after a diving game which used to be played in the Santa Cruz River, once, when it had plenty of water. The Diver was abreast

of the Mexicans as they ran across a little wash and he called out : "Let us all drink before we go on." So the Mexicans lay down to drink but the Desert man ran and got the horse. Then it was his.

One of the People had a gun on his saddle. An Enemy shot an arrow at him and it went right through his rump and stuck in the gun stock. When the fight was over, they took that man home and purified him like an Enemy Slayer because he had been touched by the Enemy.

1869-70—The people from Dried-and-Burnt and from Saddle Hanging went on the warpath. They found Enemy tracks at Ash Tree Standing;18 then they found peelings of cactus fruit, still wet and then, on a little hill, they found Enemy moccasins and wicker water bottles. The Enemy always carried two pairs of moccasins, one for cold weather and one for warm. It was warm in the Desert country, so they had left their cold weather moccasins and their water bottles while they were lying in wait for the passing wagons of the White man. The People thought the Enemy would come back and so they camped, waiting and they sent two scouts to look for them. The scouts saw the Enemy in an arroyo, laughing and talking over a little fire. They came back and told the others and they decided to encircle the Enemy and club them, to death.

The Enemy put out their fire and went to sleep. Now there was one medicine man among the Enemy who had said to them : "Let us not go on, there is something evil in the wind." But a rival medicine man said : "It is a lie. Go on unless you are afraid." So they went on. But that night the first medicine man said to a friend of his : "Do not sleep. There is danger." All the others went to sleep but the medicine man kept throwing pebbles at his friend to keep him awake. At last, he crawled over to the friend and said : "Something is going to happen. There is a sound like wind coming toward us. The sleepers are groaning. It is a bad sign. Let us two escape."

So the two went under a palo verde tree and stood there. It was dark and they could hear the People coming.

The People were making a circle but it was not joined; so the two Enemies ran through the gap and escaped. The People jumped in and clubbed the sleeping Enemies and killed them all. When it was done, they heard an old man calling: "Out here is one Enemy sitting under a rock." So Cholla-Cactus, a River Man, seized an Enemy spear and went for him. That Enemy was crouching against a rock, behind a little squawberry bush. Cholla-Cactus stabbed him through the bush and killed him. Then the People slept. In the morning, the Enemy Slayers among them gathered up the bodies of the enemy, for no one else dared touch them on pain of illness. They laid the bodies side by side in an arroyo, and for many years their bones could be seen there. Then all went home and held their scalp dance.

A man named Blisters smoked the ceremonial cigarette and proposed a war party. They went, they went, to all the places where Enemy tracks might be found. At the Mountain-Rock-where-Mesquite-Beans-are-Pounded, one man had to turn back. The Enemy, from a mountain top, saw him riding home and they came and hid behind some bushes along the path. As the man came along, his horse shied and an Enemy jumped and shot an arrow at him. It hit the man in the rump, but he galloped on and the Enemies could not catch him. The man from the People went, he went, he went, but then he could go no longer. He got off his horse, spread out his cotton blanket in the shade, laid down upon it and died.

Some others of the People were trailing the Enemy and they found where they had killed some cattle and left the meat. That woman who had once been a prisoner with the Enemy was with the People and she said they would surely come back and get the meat. So the People encircled the place and waited. The Enemy were on a mountain top and slowly they were coming down, creeping a little way, then stopping behind a rock to look and listen. One of the People made a noise like a roadrunner to give the warning but the Enemy were not fooled. They saw that man with a red shirt behind the bush and they turned back. On the hill, they lit a smoke signal, and on the next hill, another. The woman who was with the People told them it would be no use to follow, for the Enemy had been warned and were running back through the mountains.

The People went home, and on the way, one band saw the tracks of a horse with the rope dragging. They talked

about what it was and one wise man said : "Some man has been hurt." So they followed the horse and found it and took it home and then they searched for the man. They found him dead, on his blanket, and his body was already spoiled but still it had to be burned. So they placed wood on top of him because he could not be moved and they burned him. There are some who say that this was not done, because the men feared to touch him and people dispute about it to the present day. At home, his widow left the house and it was burned. Being the widow of one touched by the Enemy, she could marry only an Enemy Slayer, who had also been touched and been purified. But she married again, not obeying this rule and her husband died.

1870-71—During the summer, two Mexicans were killed by the Enemy, beyond the pass near the Hollow Place.19 News came to the pale white Mexicans, at the Foot of the Black Hill, and they came to the Hollow Place and told the People they wanted war.20 They were going to Little Springs, to chase the Enemy. The Hollow Place sent messengers to call Coyote Sitting and Mulberry Well. They

said : "Don't stop for food or for weapons. The women at the Hollow Place will be grinding corn for you and the pale whites will give you guns. So all came, some with bows and some without but, at the Foot of the Black Hill, the Mexicans gave them guns. Some Mexicans came too and they led the way.21 They went to the Little Springs where the enemy were. A Mexican heard about it and sent a letter to the agency by horseman but the letter came too late.22 Before dawn, the Mexicans and the People encircled the village and killed those who were asleep. Those who were awake escaped, some to the hills and some to the agency. The People brought some children back and kept them as their own. When they were grown, and able to work, they were sold in Sonora for a hundred dollars apiece.23


1871-72—A little before winter, word came from Little Springs that the People were wanted there for court.24 They spread the news and people went from all the Desert and River villages. The White people took them. All the Enemy were gathered there too and they stood on one side of the room, while the People stood on the other. The chief of the Enemy was seated by the agency man, then the chief of the People and then their agent.25 The Enemy chief said : "You have destroyed many people." The Mexicans said "Why did you kill two of ours. We avenged it." Then he advised the Enemy to stop warring. But the Enemy chief said it had been given him from the beginning, he could not change his ways. Then the agent for the People said: "You should be friendly with the People, they are peaceful."

But the Enemy was still determined. He said it had been so since creation. He said the Enemy had been the first to speak, the first to drink cold water. That is why they are so fierce. That chief had a rock as big as his fist. He slammed it on the table and said he would not change. The agent said : "If you disobey the law, the law will kill off the Enemy. Soldiers will come. The other Indians will help." The Enemy chief said : "If you'll give me food and all I ask, I'll stop."

The White man agreed. He promised a wagon and horses to the chief, and food and clothes for all the tribe. That was why the Enemy got so much. Every time the government delayed the gifts, the Enemy went on the warpath.


After the court, the Enemy chief and the chief of the People shook hands. Four Indians were appointed to go to Washington and to tell the government there would be no more war. They were two Enemies, one Desert Man, 26 one River Man. Each of them was given a medal and then they were sent home by sea to California and overland to Yuma at the Red River. The agent 27 took the mail buggy and went to Yuma to meet them, changing horses at every station. He took them to Maricopa and there the Pima got off to walk to his village Vahki (Sacred House). Then at Black Tips (on the road to Tucson) the Enemy got off to walk to their country. Only the Desert man was left and he was driven to the Foot of the Black Hill, and then to the Hollow Place, while the agent went on to where he was stationed.

1872-1873—Many Dresses, who had been made chief of chiefs by the Whites, died at the Narrow Place and the same year his messenger died too. The son of Many Dresses, who was called the Player, took his place

1873-74--A band of Enemies came to the Foot of the Black Hill and stole horses. A man of the People, who lived there, came to the Hollow Place to ask help in chasing them. The Hollow Place held a meeting all night and the next morning they started. Near the Black Tips28 they stopped to smoke and saw dust on the desert toward the Foot of the Black Hill. One said : "Let us see if it is the People or the Enemy." Another said : "It is wind."

So they mounted and rode close. It was the Enemy and when they saw the People, they rode off. One of the People called He-Lay-Down-Curled-Up had a gun and shot at them from a distance. The Enemy were crossing a wash, single file, one Enemy ahead on a horse and two behind on another horse. The rear one of those two was wounded and he jumped off and hid in the bushes. The

People chased the other but they could not catch them so they came back and one of the People, called Never-Did-Plant, killed that wounded one.

The people caught the horses which the Enemy had been running off and brought them back. While they were going through the White man's town at the Foot of the Black Hill a White said they were his horses which the Enemy had stolen. He had a man herding them and while the man went home to dinner, the Enemy came. But he thought the People had stolen them, so he called out: "Where did you get those horses?"

The People told him, but they would not give them back. They said : "If you want them, fight as we did. If you would show your bravery, so will we. Or you can pay us for our trouble." Then the People's leader, who was called Looking Back, said : "Go with the horses." So they did. The White man went to court about it, but the People proved they spoke truly by taking the agent to see the dead enemy. He proved to be the chief's son and his name was Jose. Old Hat, the White agent, asked for a knife and scalped him. Then he asked whose knife it was and wanted to give it back but no Indian would take it because it had touched an Enemy, so he threw it on the ground. (He could have kept the knife if he had wished to be purified with it, but no White man does that.) When they got near the Foot of the Black Hill he asked for a stick, put the scalp on it and rode into town that way, ahead of the People. They went to court and got the decision against the White man. He had to pay to get his horses back.29 All this time Never-Did-Plant, who had killed the Enemy, had been un-

dergoing purification and when his four days were up, they held the scalp dance.

1874-75—A Desert man was killed by an Enemy below Feather Headdress Mountain. This was in revenge for the death of Jose, the year before, but after it the Enemy did not come any more.

This year, there was a game of kickball at Narrow Mountain in Sonora. There was a fast runner there who won against everyone, but Mesquite Root also had a good runner, so the people of Narrow Mountain came to Mesquite Root and asked its chief, the Gambler, if his runner would compete. The chief said : "You can have him, you plead so much." Now this is how that Mesquite Root runner got his power.

He was at Mesquite Root when the Enemy attacked it and he ran away to the other side of Bare Mountain. There was a shelter which People used for gathering cactus, just a roof on four poles. The man was cold, for there were no mats there and he had only a cotton shirt that came to his knees, so he expected to freeze but he lay down and slept. While he was asleep, the white cranes came and took his heart out. They had pity on him, that was why they did this. They flew about with his heart all night, over the ocean, teaching his heart to run swiftly, while his body slept. In the morning, when he woke up, he felt warm. Then he thought of those who had been killed the day before and he thought he would go back to look for them. So he went back and helped burn the bodies. After that, he had many dreams when the white birds took his heart. They told him one day to run from Mesquite Root to the Hollow Place (forty miles) saying he would arrive by noon and he should then start back and would arrive by sundown. He wanted to test the dream so he did this and it happened as the birds said. Again the birds told him in a dream he would have a game of kickball against four relays and he would win. So it happened. A third time they came and told him he would run against one man and win and this happened. Then, in a dream, he say a race track, from the Black Hill to the Hollow Place and one man running on it, far ahead of the others. In his dream, someone asked him

to go in and help the losing side and handed him the gee string worn by runners. He accepted the gee string, saw his relay coming in and knew that his rival was far ahead, out of sight. But before he could start to run, he woke up. So he knew that he would never run again and he prepared to die. He died at Mesquite Root and they buried him at the Black Hill (near Tucson) .

But it was before this dream that the People came from Sonora asking him to run. They decided with the chief of Mesquite Root on the number of days before the match and they sent word to the sister villages of Mesquite Root so all could come and bet. Many People came from Mulberry Well and the nearby villages and they all went to Sonora together, the runner with them. There were to be two teams of two men each and they were to start just after sunrise and run as far as from the Black Hill to Skirt Mountain (about eighteen miles) and back again. But as they ran, one runner from each side dropped out and there were left only the two champions, from Sonora and Mesquite Root, who kept passing and repassing each other. They went, they went, they went, and they were still on the out stretch. But when they turned to come back, our man made up his mind to win; so he ran strongly, as though just starting out. He won by a long way though I do not know quite how long. After the race, there was much mescal to drink as there always was in Sonora. Our men stayed two days to sober up, then they gathered up the horses and clothing they had won in betting and they went home.

1875-76--At Water-Hole-In-a-Rock, there lived a medicine man with his two sons. One of these was a medicine man and one was not. A medicine man at Mesquite Root told the people that the two at Water Hole were evil and were causing the disease called Hair Falling Out.30 The People believed him, because many children had died of the disease. So they assembled outside the house of that medicine man with their bows and arrows. He and his sons fought back, but they were all killed. But all the time it was their accuser who had "made" the disease and sent it out. That man did not want it known that he was killing people, so when any one got sick he would draw a line from the sick man's house to that of another medicine man.

People looking for a sorcerer would follow the line and would go to the house of the wrong man. That was how he did it.

1876-77—There had been no prayerstick festival for ten years because there had been no rain, and no crops. But this year the festival was held at the Narrow Place and one of the images was that of a black water monster. It was made by a man who had long since dreamed a song about it and thought the people should know.

877-78—There was a disease called Chills 31 which would make people shiver even when they sat by the fire on a summer day. Many died at the Hollow Place, and the people sang to "step down" the sickness as Elder Brother had told them they should do. The Keeper of the Meeting summoned old men to sing in the council house, and, meantime, the medicine man went to every house where there were sick people. He carried with him a branch of white thorned cholla (Opuntia Bigelovii) to which everything sticks. He sucked and blew on the sick people and then he spat on the cholla branch and waved it so that it gathered up the disease. Then he went far to the north of the town, while the men were still singing and he dug a hole and buried the cholla. Above it he placed a stake of ironwood to hold it down. That is called sinking the sickness.

1878-79—The prayerstick festival was held again at the Narrow Place. The image of the black water monster was shown again, and with it was an image of a white water monster, dreamed by another man. That dreamer knew the noise which is made by the white monster and he made it in his song.

1879-1880.—The railroad came to the Foot of the? Black Hill from the Red River.32

1880-81—Many Desert people went to Yellow to work for the Mexicans and eat corn.


1881-82—There have been four tens since the beginning (i.e., forty years have passed).33

There was a disease which made people cough and get thin. The people gathered up the sickness with cholla and sang as they had done before, but more sickness came. It was being sent by an evil medicine man, who lived at the Willows and was called Angry Old Man. The people found out about it when a man was sick at the Hollow Place. Angry Old Man was visiting at the Hollow Place at that time and the sick man's brother, who did not know he was evil, sent for him. But he only made the sickness worse and the patient died. Then Angry Old Man went home to the Willows.

Now the sick man's brother felt that something must be wrong, so after burying his brother, he went to another medicine man and that man told him the truth. So the brother decided to kill Angry Old Man. He said to his mother : "I am going to the Willows, and if I do not return, you will know I am killed." Then he went, and at the Willows he asked two friends to help him. They went together to the house of Angry Old Man, dragged him out, and clubbed him. Then the killer walked away saying: "If anyone wishes to speak up for this medicine man, let him do it." No one said anything to them about it. Even his mother did not ask what he had done and the relatives of Angry Old Man buried his body under the rocks.

1882-83—At the Foot of the Black Hill one Desert man got drunk 34 and killed another. There were many Whites there then and they took the killer to jail in Yuma. The brother of the man killed was a medicine man, named Big Girl, and he made up his mind to kill the murderer, so he said to his wife : "There's a man in jail and he might want something different to eat. You grind some cornmeal

and send it to him." So the wife ground cornmeal and gave it to the medicine man who took it to the courthouse to mail but before he did that, he must have treated it with his magic power. It was sent to the murderer who started to eat it and died straightway.

Big Girl came to the Hollow Place and began working there, planting sickness. Some women, bringing wood in from the desert, saw him out there and told their men relatives. So the men got together to hunt for the charm he had planted. They could not have found it alone, but they took a good medicine man with them and that one located an eagle quill full of sickness. By good luck, they found it before it had sprouted and spread its seeds. The good medicine man knew, from far off, where the quill was and began working so that when he reached it, he could pick it up without harm. This he did and the men put it in the fire and burned it. If this had been a first offense they would only have thrown it into prickly cholla, and then Big Girl would have suffered pains but he would not have died. But since Big Girl was an evil man who had killed many, they burnt up his charm. That charm held power which had been taken directly from his heart and so his heart burned too. Day by day he began to look more dried and burnt up, and in the summer he died.

1883-84—The People from all over the desert brought their families and came in to the Foot of the Black Hill to cut the grain of the Whites. There was a mill there where they could take grain and get flour and so they fed their children.35

1884-85—The women from Coyote Sitting sang at Mulberry Well. It was an old Coyote woman who was leader and she decided to do things just like a man. First she went to a singer living at Coyote and called Having-No-Pet and she asked him to sing. He said yes and he started training the boys and girls according to his dreams. Then the old woman saddled up a horse and dressed in her husband's

clothes—pants, shirt, boots, spurs, and Mexican straw hat. She put cane cigarettes in a fox skin bag and she rode to Mulberry Well, where the women were assembled and waiting for her. They all sat in a circle and the leading woman of Mulberry Well took a firebrand and placed it in front of the visitor. The visitor lighted her cigarette and took two puffs and then she handed the cigarette to the hostess at her right and so it went round the circle, just as it goes with the men. Twice it went round, until every woman had had four puffs. Then the visitor spoke:

I have said that I would come. Now let us set a time for the games. We will sing and then we will see how fast runners our girls are.

The hostess said :

What you say is true. You have come as you said. Make ready your girls and I will get mine.

Then they set the time and all the women gave the women's war whoop, ki-yi-yi, as they always do at games. They kept track of the days and the girls trained. They ate no sweet things and no meat, just gruel, cornmeal flour, and salt. When the days were up, all the Coyote people, men and women, went and camped close to Mulberry Well. They sang, and while the singing was going on, the Mulberry women made up their bets and their leader came dancing, carrying the bundle on her head, as the men do. The Coyote woman took the bundle and carried it off and then Mulberry fed Coyote for their singing. Then they raced.

The track was half a mile long and all the girls from both sides raced. The best runner from Coyote was a young girl and the one from Mulberry was an older woman. Both ran many times and the older woman finally won the race for Mulberry. The starters and those who set the moving line were men, and the men bet too, but not with women. Men and women always bet separately and put their goods in separate piles. Women this time bet their shawls and even took their dresses off.

A few days later, Mulberry wanted to sing for Coyote and their woman leader dressed and gave the challenge just as the Coyote woman had done. She had a singer of eagle songs. This time Mulberry Well won on a foul. Coyote started a runner off too soon, thinking her relay had come in when it was really for the other side.


At White Well (back of Roadside Mine), the Mexicans dug a well close to the old one that belonged to the People, and which had been there since the creation. The Indians had been given water by Elder Brother, who stuck his rod into the side of the mountains and made water come out. All such water belongs to the Indians. The Mexicans, after they had dug their well, would not let the Indians drink out of their old one. Barrel-Cactus once camped there but the Mexicans would not let him have any water so he moved on and camped. Later he came back and took some water. He also wanted a buzzard feather because he was a shaman. He stuck the feather in the bubbling part of the spring and it was like a tube which reached to the other side. This almost caused a war between the Mexicans and the Coyote people.36 The Mexicans called the police, who went to Coyote and took a man called Gold-Breast. He was hand-cuffed, and taken in the police buggy to Tucson.

The People decided to rescue Gold-Breast, and they followed on horseback and caught up by a little hill called Rattlesnake House. With their arrows ready they got in front of the buggy and took the Indian. Then they told the police to remove the handcuffs. The officer of the police tried to hand over the key to the Indians but they said: "You do it," and drew their bows. So the officer unfastened the handcuffs. A Desert man, named Gourd-Head, who was left-handed, threw a handful of dirt in the officer's face. The officer said : "We'll get an army against you," but the People said : "We'll be waiting."

Later, some Indians living at White Wells saw an army of soldiers passing. A woman there, whose husband was off hunting, put a saddle blanket on her horse, tied up her hair, girded up her skirt, mounted, and galloped off to Coyote to warn the People. The Smoke-Keeper called the men and they got their bows and arrows ready. A few had guns. The Smoke-Keeper told them to line up in two groups, and not to shoot unless they were shot at twice. As the soldiers approached, the Indians kept shouting and jumping in the air as though they were happy. The White officer made a motion "Wait." The women ran off toward the mountains.


When the soldiers were within two hundred feet, one Desert man shot his gun. The officer kept motioning "hold on," and so did the Smoke-Keeper. They quieted down a little but they still walked about and Smoke-Keeper kept standing in his place waiting. The captain dismounted and came to Smoke-Keeper with a body guard. He sat down and invited the People to sit down also. He said there would be no war if the chief would give two men to be tried at the Foot of the Black Hill. Smoke-Keeper told the People that they had better do this, and that two should go. He chose three men. Then the White man asked for wheat flour, so Smoke-Keeper went and got his own and threw the whole bag at the White man, saying, "Take it. If you haven't food, why did you want to fight?"

The Whites went away with the prisoners, and Smoke-Keeper told the others to get ready and follow them to court. Smoke-Keeper said that he himself would go to Player, the head chief, to get the papers given when the chiefs made agreements with the Whites. Player was then living at Saddle Hanging; so Smoke-Keeper went and said to him: "Lend me the papers to prove my rights." There was a White man at the Hollow Place who was a teacher and a doctor for the government. The next morning Smoke-Keeper went to this man and showed him the paper, which was half rotted and had never been opened once since it had been received. The White man made a copy of it, which he glued to the old paper. A Papago, who had been to school and could speak English, interpreted for the Indians at court. He said :

How can a White man or a Mexican put me in jail for what belongs to me? The well is mine because when Elder Brother created me, he put me on this land, which belongs to me, and struck the mountain sides with his rod, bringing water. He meant me to drink that water and live by it. Everything that grows was meant for me to eat and live by.

The judge said: "Before the White came, what did you use for a saddle?"

"I made one of grass."

"What did you use for a packstrap?"

"Agave string."

"What for bridle and stirrup straps?"

"Agave string."


"What for a saddle blanket?"

"Matted grass. I know how to use all desert plants because they were given to me."

Then the judge said: "The Indians are right." He read the paper. Old Hat, the agent, told where the People's boundary line should be. He asked the Whites if they knew Mesquite Root. The surveyors were called but they did not know it. No one in the court knew it. Old Hat said to the Whites : "Get out. It can't be your land if you don't know it."

An old pioneer was sent for and he arrived with an armful of maps, but he could not find Mesquite Root. Old Hat said: "It is on no map but the Indians know it." Then the judge said he decided in favor of the People. One man was released, and the other two stayed until all was settled and the Mexicans were pacified.

The water dried up from the well before the year was over. It has been dry ever since, but one can still see the place where the well was.

1885-86—The Hollow Place sang for the Willows. They had a famous singer who had dreamed wind songs, for, once when he was out on a war party, the winds came with dust and sang to him. This man trained the boys and girls of the Hollow Place and some from Coyote Sitting and he told how they should be costumed and painted to sing his songs. One boy was to dance in the middle, leaping about like a whirlwind. He was to carry bow and arrows and have his face painted black, white, and yellow. The other boys and girls were to dance in a circle around him.

The boy who danced the wind was very lively and light and everyone liked to see him. Two old women from the Willows came into the circle to dance with him, for that is the way to show politeness to a visiting dancer. Young women would be too shy to do it; it is for the old to give this welcome and then the relatives of the boy dancer give them gifts in thanks for their courtesy. So it was this time, but the wind dancer went so fast that the old women were bewildered and just stood there turning around in the middle of the circle, hardly seeing where he was. The people laughed.

After the dancing, all the people laid their bets for the relay race next day. One man from the Willows came in while the dance was still going on and he leaped beside the

dancers, carrying on his head a big bundle of goods to be bet: "Take it!" cried out the men from the Hollow Place. So one of them took it and danced off with it. Then they put it away to be bet next day. Then all the other bets were laid and two medicine men, one from each side, were set to watch the pile all night lest any magic be worked on it. Next morning at dawn, the racers stripped to the gee string. Every young man in both towns was to run and the good ones many times. The track was a mile long, and half the men of each side were stationed at one end, half at the other, with starters at each end to send them off. A man started from one end and, as soon as his foot was over the line at the other end, the starter shouted four times and pushed off his relay. That man must not start until he was pushed off by a long stick or he would have to leave the race.

They ran all day, passing and repassing. The side which was ahead would have a runner just starting out as the man from the other side was coming in and where they passed, a stake was set up. At the other end of the track, it would be the same so there were always two stakes being set. These were called the moving line. As one side got more and more tired, its runners would be passed, not just reaching the goal but out toward the middle of the course and so the moving lines would come closer and closer together. When they met, the race was over. But sometimes when they had almost met, the losing side would put in a good runner and the stakes would move back again. Then the betting would change.

This time, the Willows won. After the race was over, the wind blew so hard people could hardly see. That was because they had sung wind songs.

A month later, the Willows sang for the Hollow Place. On their way there, they passed through Coyote Sitting, which was sister village to the Hollow Place, and they said they would sing there too on the way back. So they stopped at Mulberry Well and made those things which they would carry in the dance. Their singer was called He-Has-Mesquite and he was left-handed. He rattled the gourd with his left hand and sang the songs he had dreamed. Then they raced and the Willows won.

This year, a man was killed on the salt pilgrimage. (Indicated by the dot beside the event symbol.)


1886-87—The prayerstick festival was held at the Narrow Place because it had been a good year with rain. In the summer, there was an earthquake.37 An evil medicine man, named Striped Clothes, was killed. This man had killed two brothers while they were picking cactus on the Crumpled Mountains near the Hollow Place. They got sick and this man pretended to cure them but all the time he was making them worse. Their father, who was called Dizzy One, suspected something so he went to the Cleared Land and got a good medicine man. "My boys have long been sick," he said. "What is the reason?" That good man sang all night and he found the thing was done by Striped Clothes. "I can do nothing," he said, "but Striped Clothes is close by and he can undo his work." So they sent for Striped Clothes who was close by. He came with his wife, blew smoke, and pretended to heal, but all the time he was making magic so the patient would die by morning. One boy died at dawn and the next day his brother died.

Their father buried them and then, very angry, he came to the chief at the Hollow Place. He said : "I will kill that medicine man." The chief said : "All right. We know he's bad. But watch him close. He keeps many people for safety. You follow him and get him when he is alone off the reservation."

Striped Clothes had gone then to the River Country to cut wheat but he came back for the rabbit hunt. He had earned a sack of wheat as payment from the Pimas and he came with it on the train because all Indians were allowed to ride free. He walked home to the Hollow Place and got a horse to carry his wheat, and two friends to go with him. They got whiskey in Tucson and they sat down by the road to drink.

Now Dizzy One had heard that Striped Clothes had come home and he and two friends were tracking him. They were in ambush along the road from the Foot of the Black Hill to the Hollow Place, because that was off the reservation. And the wife of Striped Clothes knew he would be drunk, so she had sent a messenger to bring him home. Finally Striped Clothes was very drunk and he parted from his two friends and was staggering to his horse and just then the messenger came. They started along the road with

the horse and the sack of wheat and Dizzy One and his friends jumped out. They shot Striped Clothes and they stabbed the messenger in the back. Then they rode off. But the messenger got home and told the wife of Striped Clothes, and, as Dizzy One and his friends were unsaddling their horses, they heard her crying. She went crying down the road to the Foot of the Black Hill and there she found her husband's body. She had it buried there between two hills.

1887-88—In the winter, came the last of the earthquakes. It was after that, that a White man came to the Willows with a well drill and made a well but he got no water.

1888-89—The White man returned to the Willows and got water. Then he brought his cattle and started a ranch, but he grew poor and left.

There was a horse race at Carrying Basket Mountain. This was the new name of Mesquite Root for it was near the old village and the people had moved there to get better water. Carrying Basket Mountain and its sister villages, Burnt Seeds, Saddle Hanging, Mulberry Pond, and Standing Rock, raced against the Owl people. The race track was ten miles and return, and there were two horses racing. Along the track, each side had watchers who would ride beside them, going fast on their fresh horses and encouraging them, until they came to the next watcher. The people from Carrying Basket Mountain thought they would win, because their man, Very Polite, had a fine horse. But the horse would not turn quickly at the goal, even though there were men there to whip him and see that he came around as he should, so the Owl people won.

1889-90—Mesquite Root came to sing at the Hollow Place. They sang the Naming songs because crops had been bad and they wanted to cheer up their hosts. They used old songs given by Elder Brother and into them they fitted the name of the people at the Hollow Place so that they were praised with beautiful singing. Mulberry Well sang with them and Coyote Sitting helped the Hollow Place to feed the guests. After the dance they had races and the visitors won.

The Hollow Place began to think about this and after the visitors had gone, they sent a messenger after them to say : "We will play kickball with you." The visitors were

in camp on the road and they said : "Very well, we will play here." So they collected their bets, for they had many goods with them, having just won in the races. They settled on a course many miles out through the desert and around some trees. Two men were to play on each side and were to run around these trees and back, while many of the people followed them on horses, shouting to encourage them. When they got to the trees, each side left its kickball, ran around the trees and came back to it. As they turned the goal both sides were close together but then the Hollow Place got ahead. So they won and got back all they had lost.

1890-91—The Hollow Place went to Mesquite Root to sing in return for last year.38 They used the same naming songs as had been sung last year but this time they put into them the names of Mesquite Root people. Before the dance there was a big rain that lasted all night and into the next day, so it was too wet for kickball. They had a relay race on a short track and Mesquite Root won.

That same year the Owl people raced with those of Burnt Dog. It happened in this way. At the drinking ceremony at the Burnt Dog, there was a man from Mulberry Well, visiting. This man's name was Garment Falling Off and he had been one who arranged the horse race two years ago. He was an old man and he got very drunk and while he was sitting there, some people from one of the Owl villages came and taunted him. "We know you can't beat us," they said. "Our horse is fast but even at kickball you can't beat us. Do you want to race again?" They were on horseback and they rode at him so that the Burnt Dog people had to drive them off. Garment Falling Off felt bad about that and he cried.

When the liquor was all gone he went home, thinking, and from down in his heart he decided: "I'll race with them." That evening, he talked with his two sons. "Now I have in mind something to tell you. From the beginning we are told: 'If you have a son, in the morning make him get up and run. From sunrise till the sun is high, let him run.' That is what Elder Brother told us and that is what you must do. So you will get strength. Early in the morning get

out, and on the mountain, look for deer. From them you will get strength. In the late afternoon, get your kickball and run again. I'll be watching to see when you have enough speed."

So he talked, every evening and morning. Before dawn he would wake up and sing four songs which came from Elder Brother. Then he would tell the boys : "Get up now and run." So they did all winter and when he thought they had enough speed, he called old men from the other sister villages and told them his plan. They set a date when Garment Falling Off should bring his boys to Carrying Basket Mountain and show their speed. So they showed it and the other men said : "Yes. We can bet on them."

It was summer and the race would be run next fall so they had time for more training. There was, at Mesquite Root, a famous runner named Pure Cactus Seeds, who was now too old to run but he could train others, so they sent for him. He had a track cleared in the desert for five miles and every day they swept the thorns off it with greasewood branches so they would not hurt the feet of the runners. The boys would run that five miles and back and the old runner would go with them just a little way, shouting and encouraging them but he was too old to go far. Every little while he had that track made longer until at last it was twenty-five miles. Far down that track he would station other men who were to start when the boys did and the boys must beat them. Every day he stationed them further away, but the boys always passed them. Every night and every morning he sang the old running songs, given by Elder Brother.

Then, in late summer, Garment Falling Off went to the Owl people and said : "I have found what game to play you—kickball." He went to all their villages and told them : "I will come back at a set time to hear your answer." They accepted and they planned to hold the race at Rich Land Pond.

When the day came, the Mulberry Well people went driving their cattle to bet. They camped outside Ploughed Land and all day and all night the people were placing their bets, while the medicine men were singing on both sides to help their people win. Next day they raced and the two boys won.


1891-92—No event. Fifty years have passed.39

1892-93—The Owl people kept on training runners. In the middle of the summer they sent word to Mulberry Well : "You've beaten us, now we are ready to play again. Tell your partners to start training your boys. We'll train ours." All started training. Every once in a while the Owl Chief would come to see how the training was coming on. When the date was near, he came and said : "The time is nearly up." The two chiefs were conferring, the boys were training. The next month he came again and the date was set. Two days before the race, all gathered at Carrying Basket Mountain.

The next morning the Owl people arrived. They took all day to bet corrals full of cattle, and they bet all night. The runners did not start until afternoon. There were only two, the oldest son of Garment Falling Off and an Owl man. The race started when the sun was long past his mid-day stopping place and was from Carrying Basket Mountain out into the desert twenty-five miles and back. When the sun was nearly down the runners were just at the other end of the track and before they got to Where-Water-Whirls-Round it was sundown. The son of Garment Falling Off was two miles ahead. They had horsemen following the runners, as they always did and one of them rode forward, took the young man up behind him and went and told Garment Falling Off: "Your son has won. I put him on my horse and brought him home." This race was called the Night-Kickball.

That summer, on St. John's day, one of the People stabbed another.40

1893-94--The Owl people stole some horses from a man called Beckoning the Girls. About one or two o'clock in the afternoon the people at Coyote Sitting found it out, followed the tracks of the thieves and found their camp of the pre

vious night. The pursuers stopped near Water Whirl and asked help in their pursuit. They kept on into the mountains. The tracks were hard to find among the rocks and they gave up. Meanwhile the prayerstick festival was going on and these men missed it.

1894-95—The Hollow Place had a meeting and it was said : "We're going to have a ceremony as we used to do before going on the warpath." This they did so the young men could know how it used to be, although there was now no more war. So the men went out to the southeast, whence the Enemy used to come and camped for the night, and a medicine man worked to find where the enemy were. He said they were close on the other side of the hill, so two men were sent over there to make grass effigies. They made two and put skirts on them like men and they set them in a brush enclosure. The war party sent scouts to circle around that enclosure and they named two boys who were to be the killers. These two would be purified and they would learn the old speeches which can be spoken only by Enemy Slayers. So, when the order was given, they clubbed the effigies and a messenger was sent to announce the killing. From far off he began shouting the names and every family danced in front of its own house. The boys were purified and then they held the scalp dance. After it, there were races between the two sections of the Hollow Place, one called the Hollow Place and one called Many Ants. Two days after, the Hollow Place sang for Many Ants and there were more races.

1895-96—Another mock war and scalp dance, with races between the two divisions of the Hollow Place. The people from Burnt Seeds, Carrying Basket, and Water Whirl, held a meeting and decided to sing for the Mouth of the Gap. So the Smoke Keeper of Water Whirl went to the Gap and gave the challenge and the Gap agreed. Ten days were set for the preparation. This time the songs were not old ones but had just been dreamed by one of their singers. In the dance, they formed a circle, men in one half of it, women in the other. This was so that the men from the Gap could come in and join hands with the visiting women, and the women with the visiting men. This they did and their relatives came with food for all the dancers. While they danced, a woman from the Gap came dancing in with a

bundle of bets on her head and a woman from Water Whirl took it and danced with her. Water Whirl won.

1896-97—Then the Gap held a meeting and decided to sing for Water Whirl. They sang and feasted and then they raced on a mile-long track uphill. Water Whirl got ahead and the stakes of the moving line were coming closer and closer. The runners were getting tired because the uphill part of the race was hard, but the old men said : "You shouldn't mind if you are tired and out of breath, the others feel the same." But the men from the Gap were so tired they could not catch up. Then the old men looked about for a new man who was not out of breath and at last they found one. They took him to the end of the track where he would run down hill and when his relay came in, they told him to sprint. So he did and he caught up with the Water Whirl man and passed him. All the Gap people shouted. The moving line was now almost at the end and by sundown the two stakes had met. The Gap won. Next day, Water Whirl had to collect cattle from the range to pay their bets. Seven boys from the Gap came and camped while they did it and then a Water Whirl man stood at the mouth of the corral and shouted out the names of the losers so their cattle could be driven out. It took the Gap boys all day to get home with the herd.

1897-98—Water Whirl proposed a return match with the Gap to get back their losses. The two agreed to ask their sister villages and to have the race after the harvest. All trained their boys and then held test races so that they could choose the fastest runners to start the race and perhaps get the lead.

When the time came, all the visitors camped around the Gap and all had their medicine men working all night. One sister village of the Gap was the Hollow Place and their medicine man, called Cholla Cactus, had war power. He took his scalp basket, placed it on a mound in a wash and talked to the scalps while the old men sang. The scalps worked for him as he asked. They pulled out a hair from the tail of each horse and cow on the other side, then flew over the medicine man's head and dropped that ball of hair. He said : "It is as if we were already victorious. The horses have been brought to us." Then he gave a hair to each of the singers, warning them not to lose them, or no horse

would be won. The other side had no one so powerful, or else the hairs could never have been taken.

1898-99—Many children of the People were taken to Santa Fe to school. 41

1899-1900—The Calendar Keeper went blind and handed over the stick to his successor. A baby named Long-Penis was born.

1900-01—A boy, Jose Pablo, was born.

1901-02—The father of Long-Penis was killed at the Narrow Place during the ceremonial drinking.

The Owl people wanted to race again with Mulberry Well, for they had twice been beaten by them. So all the Owl villages got together and all the northern villages joined with Mulberry Well. These were : Carrying Basket, Saddle Hanging, Burnt Seeds, Narrow Place, the Willows, Coyote Sitting, Tucson, and the Narrow Place. It was an even race, over a five-mile course and the best they had ever had. An old man, named Blisters, rode a horse beside the Mulberry runners, kept blowing smoke over them and telling them to speed up. So they won by a half-mile.

1902-03—This was the year of the coming of the rail?road from the East. Many Indians from the Narrow? Place were taken as prisoners by the Mexicans 42 for killing ?White men's cattle. They were arrested while working in? their field, tied with long ropes by the wrists and were made

to walk, single file, to court at Tucson. Pinching, the brother of a medicine man, met them and tried medicine man's work, but it had no effect on the Mexicans. So he went home. The other Indians were put in jail.

The chief from the Hollow Place called a meeting and decided to go to the Foot of the Black Hill and find out what the trouble was. He went to court and called for a hearing. The Indians asked the Mexicans for proof that they were seen killing the cattle. False witnesses spoke, each identifying some man from the People and many were thus accused. But the judge did not believe them. He said : "If you had seen them you would have accused them then. You have no right to put men in jail. You are not appointed to do so." The chief agreed. The judge released the People, and told the Mexicans that next time they should get their evidence on the spot.

1903-04—The Coyote people moved to Willow Wash. A few had gone there before and now many went. The water in the fields had "changed its route," i. e., the wash had moved. The people worked all summer but they got nothing planted because they spent all their time clearing.

1904-05—In August, the Coyote people went to new clearings. The father and mother of a man called Cook died.

1905-06—The Owl people again challenged the northerners. On the Owl side were all the Mexican villages down to Quitovaca, in Sonora, and on the northern side, Carrying Basket, Coyote Sitting, Mulberry Well, Burnt Seeds, Saddle Hanging, the Foot of the Black Hill, and the Hollow Place. They decided to meet in the Yellow Moon (May) and to play at kickball, three men to a side. The course was to be thirty-four miles, from Barrel Cactus to Big Fields and back.

When the time came, all camped near the race course and set their medicine men to work, and meantime test races were held to pick the fastest runners. One of the Owl medicine men was so powerful that he caused a runner from the other side to be hit on the ankle with a kickball so that he could not run. But the medicine man on the northern side understood what had happened. "This harm was planned for the real race," he said. "Luckily it happened too soon and we have another runner." So they called the sub-

stitute and gave him the regular talk to runners. He agreed to run.

Next day, both sides took great care to prevent evil magic. Horsemen kept all spectators a hundred yards from the track, since no medicine man, if he stood among them, could make his magic fly that far. They did not bring the runners up until the last minute for fear of their being injured. They were brought in from a distance, each sitting behind a horseman, so that he could leap off when he got to the track and start running before anyone could touch him. They started when the sun was far up enough to make things warm and ran until he was far past his midday stopping place. The northerners won. That winter, the prayer-stick festival was held at the Narrow Place.

1906-07—The people from Coyote Sitting had moved to new fields the year before and had made a pond. Now they moved further and made another pond, all working together.

1907-08—A man from the People was made a prisoner at Yuma. His brother died at the Hollow Place.

1908-09—The prisoner returned.

1909-10--Many of the People were jailed that fall for drunkenness at Magdalena, where they went on a pilgrimage.43 On their return, they held the prayerstick festival at the Narrow Place.

1910-11—At Easter, Saddle Hanging held the first dance in couples, in the White manner. There was also a horse race between Coyote and Saddle Hanging. Saddle Hanging won.

1911-12—There was another American style dance at Saddle Hanging, and another race as before.


1912-13--When the stick ended there was a gathering to talk it over. Then they began marking on a new stick.

1913-14—A man named Little Rat had a son at the time of the prayerstick festival.

1914-15—A medicine man from Mulberry Well died at the Hollow Place. He was taken home to be buried.

A man was killed at the Foot of the Black Hill and his body was taken to the railroad so that it would look like a railroad accident. People saw another man with him and both were drunk. The companion was arrested but there was no proof of his guilt.

The government put money out for some work at the Hollow Place to take care of the water. There was much employment. 44

1915-16—A man was left by his wife and died about the middle of the summer. Three men died in the winter.

1916-17—Another man died. Five died at the Willows. One of them was from the Hollow Place. He was the Calendar Keeper. The stick was then broken, but it was rescued.

1917-18—There was an Indian court at the Hollow Place for the first time. Two medicine men were brought before it, and a man who had two wives. This was at the request of the People, no Whites influenced them. The Calendar Keeper's wife died.

1918-19—One of the People was taken prisoner at Saddle Hanging. The man had a child by his brother's wife. He was her husband's elder brother. He was in jail several months.

1919-20—Many people died. One was murdered, shot by his son. One was a medicine man.

1920-21—Another old man and his daughter died. An accident happened near the Hollow Place. A man was thrown from a wagon while going to the cactus camp. The Whites took him to the hospital but he died.


1921-22—Another man died. Two grown women died and one little boy. An old man, also, died and he was the one who took the calendar stick from the Keeper who was blind. Green-Insect took the stick.

1922-23—A man died in the summer. Another man died while on a trip for wood. His wife was with him. He was killed by a ghost. They were gathering wood separately. His wife saw him lying. He could not get up. She heard a wagon and asked for help. When he got home he died.

The head singer and Smoke Keeper was taken by a man at the new agency. The police took him for making liquor. He died in jail. The People got his body.

1923-24—A man named Sweet, who had been sick, shot himself. A month later, when the peas were ripe, his widow was gathering them and her husband must have pushed her down. Her daughter heard the woman say : "Come and help me." Then she fell down. Later she died.

1924-25—Three women died ; one right after the other.

1925-26—Five old people died. One was a woman. Saddle Hanging had a meeting and decided to sing for the Hollow Place. "Do so," said the Hollow Place, "in order to show the young how it was done and to bring back the memories of the old." So they asked permission of the agent, for the White people now objected to many of their customs. The agent was called Glass Eyes,45 and he gave permission. The Hollow Place had twelve good runners and, even though one fell and delayed the race, they won. Then the women played shinny until sundown. They had not time to finish the game so they took back their bets.

1926-27—This year the first rodeo was held at Tucson and the Indians rode.46

1927-28—A man died in the winter and two more in the summer.


1928-29--A very old man, named Cotton Nest Owner, died. Toward the end of the year, an old woman died also.

1929-30—A man named Matilla hanged himself. This man had been sick and his son would not take care of him, but went off on a job two days before. The dead man was found by a boy who was looking for cottontails. The boy would not go near the dead man, but he came and told the Indians who notified the officers. He had climbed a tree, fixed the noose, and tied his own hands.

The same year two other old men died.

1930-31—A man was struck by lightning and killed.

The Calendar Keeper had been telling his son-in-law for over a year about this stick since his eyesight was failing. He would start at the beginning and try to tell all. But it was too long and his son-in-law could not remember it. Then the son-in-law suggested that he learn a part at a time. He repeated one part, of sixteen years each day. When the son-in-law made a mistake the old man would correct him and tell him to practice on it whenever he had nothing else to do.

In this year a White woman started a Skipping Dance.47

1931-32—Another Skipping Dance was held by the same White woman who had started one the year before.

Another man from the Gap was killed by lightning near Saddle Hanging.


1.Bancroft states that, between 1840 and 1842, there were constant brushes in Sonora between the Gándara and Urrea factions, Gándara inciting the Papago and Yaqui to help him. In 1840, "these Indians rose and committed serious depredations and were reduced by a strenuous campaign." Bancroft, Hubert Howe, History of the North Mexican States and Texas, p. 659. The Papago and the Gila tribes were concerned in hostilities in 1842-3 but were pardoned in May, 1843. Ibid., History of Arizona and New Mexico, pp. 404-405.

Emory, writing of his trip along the Mexican border in 1857, speaks of a battle between Papagos of that district and Mexicans in the near past, undated, when "having sustained repeated losses they (the Papagos) at length sought their god who is said to dwell on the high peak of Baboquivari, to ask his aid and countenance in a last grand fight with their enemies. They assembled their families and herds of horses and cattle within an amphitheatre enclosed by the mountain ridges and battled it manfully for many days at its entrance . . . but suffered an overpowering defeat," Emory, William Helmsley, Report on the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, made under the direction of the secretary of the interior, by W. H. Emory, vol. 1, 1857-59, p. 112, p. 1, note 15.

2. It has been impossible to identify the epidemics mentioned. At times they corresponded with those reported by the Pima as in 1875-6 and 1877-8 (Russell p. 65) or even with the Kiowa, in 1877 (Mooney, p. 218). But illnesses reported for the Pima in 1860, 1866, 1882-3, 1896-7, 1898-9, which are likely to have spread to the Papago are not mentioned. Nor is the smallpox reported by the agent as raging in all villages of Pima, Papago, and Maricopa in the winter of 1883-4. (Report, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1884, p. 6.) These epidemics may not have reached the village of San Xavier, or phases of them may have reached it in some other year. Brushes with the Apache were also a constant occurrence at this time and the one mentioned cannot be identified.

3. The Skipping Dance (tcirkona), was a famous Papago institution, whose function was to promote friendship between distant villages and provide a means of economic exchange. It took place after harvest, when the people had food and leisure, and was followed by inter-village games with heavy betting. The challenging village would offer to "sing for" the challenged, which meant that they presented an original musical performance amounting almost to an operetta, for which they received liberal donations. This was a prelude to contests at long distance racing, kickball racing or relay racing, between men, and perhaps shinny or racing between women. In the betting, large amounts of property changed hands. (For detailed description see Underhill, Ruth, Papago Social Organization, Columbia University Press, 1938.)

4.Bancroft says that in December, 1850, Tucson was attacked by Apaches, who killed three or four people. Papago reinforcements came up and the Apache were driven off. Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, pp. 475-6.

5. The Pima stick mentions a plague, in 1844-5, from which people died within twenty-four hours. Russell, p. 42.

6. The Pima stick accords with the Papago in dating this raid 1851-52, Russell, p. 45. The only account from written sources is a reminiscence in the Arizona Daily Citizen of Jan. 1, 1890, which places the raid in 1859. The Citizen says that, in 1856, two Mexicans started a series of mines in the Cababi Valley (in which Mesquite Root is situated) and worked them from 1857-59, employing Papagos. In 1859, there was a huge Apache invasion, from Baboquivari to the Gulf of California, destroying many Papago villages, which were afterward deserted for many years.

7. This incident and the succeeding one of the man who rescued his daughter were added to the story of the raid by the widow of the original calendar keeper. Versions of them are told all over the country and they have come, now, to partake of the nature of legend. They are distinctly different in style from the bare narrative as given by the present keeper, yet he was willing to have them inserted. "She has heard the story as much as I have," he commented, with typical Papago tolerance, "Perhaps she knows."

8. The Apache who most frequently raided the Papago were the Pinaleno and Arivaipa who roamed about the San Pedro valley and the Santa Rita Mountains, dividing that valley from the Santa Cruz. The "end of the black hills" was, according to the calendar keeper, a pass in the Santa Ritas. This whole country had been abandoned to the Apache since 1848, when the presidios at Tubac and Tumacacori were given up. (Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, p. 475.) Some Papago, not, apparently, those concerned with the present stick, had made a raid on the Pinaleno in 1849, bringing in many ears as trophies. (Ibid., p. 475.)

9. For a brief description of the prayerstick festival (wi-kita) see Mason, J. Alden, "The Papago Harvest Festival," American Anthropologist, vol. 22, 1920, pp. 13-25.

10. A group of "tame" Apache was living at San Xavier about this time. Browne, J. Ross, Apache Country, p. 142. Hilario Gallego, in his personal reminiscences, on file in typewritten form with the Arizona Pioneers Historical Society, Tucson, states : "There was a kind of peaceful Apaches that had a camp right out here (Tucson) a little way. Any Apache who wanted to be peaceful could come and stay with these Indians. Then the wild Apache would follow them up and try to kill them." Gallego's own father employed two "tame Apaches."

11. White sources ascribe the defending of the sheep ranch to Mexican cavalry and "tame" Apaches. An account by Hon. P. H. Brady, who was making a mining survey of southern Arizona in the winter of 1853-4, gives the following version: "On our way to the ranch (Calabasas) Capt. Garcia, the Comandante of Tucson, told us that an Apache squaw had made her escape from the Apaches Coyoteros some days before and had arrived safely in the garrison at Tucson and had told him that, on a certain date, which could be reckoned by the age of the moon, the several bands of Coyotero Apaches and Pinalenos were going to make an attack on Calabasas and clean out everything that there was there.... That he had come down from Tucson with 80 Mexican dragoons and 40 Apache Mansos their allies and had been at Calabasas two days waiting for them to attack the ranch. (later)—we heard a high call from the Mexican cavalry. We looked in the direction of the ranch house and there was a commotion sure enough. The herders were crowding the sheep, about 6000 of them, into the corrals. The women and families who lived outside were running to get into the ranch building when suddenly there came a whoop and a yell from the 200 Apaches and a blast from the Mexican bugle. The Mexican cavalry charged right into the herd of Indians and it was almost all over, so suddenly were they routed . . . by the time we ran the 500 yards, the Mexican cavalry were a half mile beyond us, lancing and killing the rascals, picking them up on the points of their lances and lifting them off their feet. Their allies, the Tucson Apaches, were butchering and mutilating those who were left behind. . . . They killed and butchered as long as there was an Apache left in sight." Manuscript account by P. H. Brady, in the archives of Arizona Pioneers Historical Society, pp. 48-51.

12. No written records of such an occurrence were found. In 1848 after the treaty of peace with Mexico, Major Lawrence P. Graham passed through Tucson with a battalion of dragoons on his way to the Gila. (Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico. p. 479.) In 1866, after the Gadsden Purchase, four companies of dragoons were stationed at Tucson. (Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, p. 496.) The war department has no record of fighting in either case, nor is it mentioned in the histories. Since the Papago account pays little attention to the passage of troops at other times (e.g. Mormon Battalion, Confederate troops, California Column) it seems possible that the event alluded to was not a military occupation but some act of local vandalism immediately after the ratification of the Gadsden Purchase. (See Bancroft, op. cit., pp. 475-6.)

13. No agency was started for the Papago at this date and there was never one at Red Mountain (Sp, Cerro Colorado), which was a White mining camp. The Papago did not come officially under United States rule until the ratification of the Gadsden Purchase in 1854. They and other Indians in the purchased area were then considered under the charge of the governor of New Mexico (which included Arizona), the governor having been ex officio Indian agent since 1849. (Hoopes, Alban W., Indian Affairs and Their Administration.) In its report for 1856-57, the War Department recommended that there should be a separate agent for the "Gadsden Indians" and in Aug., 1857, Col. John Walker had started for Tucson. (Report of War Department, 1857, p. 565.) His headquarters were at Tucson and no record was found as to a conference on the border.

However, various white men visited the Red Mountain district more or less officially. Emory, while making the boundary survey, was at Nogales June 29, 1855, and was there visited by a delegation of Pima and Papago, asking what their status would be under the Gadsden Purchase. He explained that they would keep their lands and all rights they had had under Mexico. He gives the names of the visiting chiefs, only two of whom were Papagos: Jose Victorian Lucas, "chief of the San Xavier Pimos" and Captain Jose Antonio, "chief of the San Xavier Pimos." (Emory, Boundary Survey, vol. 1, p. 96.)

Charles D. Poston, manager for the Sonora Mining and Exploring Company, established his headquarters at Tubac in the summer of 1856, with a subsidiary mine at Cerro Colorado. Poston, who acted as a sort of feudal lord for Indians and Mexicans of the neighborhood, may well have mentioned that the local chiefs would probably be confirmed in office. (See Browne, Apache Country, pp. 237-254, also Poston's own accounts in manuscript in archives Arizona Pioneers Historical Society.)

14. The first bridge on the road from Tucson to Sells.

15.Fort Buchanan, near the Mexican border and in the vicinity of both Arivaca and Cerro Colorado, was established Nov., 1856, abandoned and destroyed by government orders, July, 1861. (Hamersly, Thomas, Extracts from Army Regulations, 1779-1878.) This withdrawal of troops because of the Civil War was one of the most important events of that time for southern Arizona, since the Apaches felt it was they who had terrorized the Whites and that the country was now helpless under their attacks. They began a series of raids which devastated all the country south of Tucson and caused the abandonment of many ranches and all the mining camps. Arivaca and Cerro Colorado were two of these camps and the Papago account evidently refers to a theft of all the stock from Arivaca, which occurred a few weeks after the evacuation of the fort. Colonel Poston, the mine manager, thus describes the raid:

"The corral at Arivaca was constructed of adobes with a layer of cactus poles (ocatillo) between each layer of adobe. The Apaches tried their rope saws but the cactus parted the rope. The bars were up and a log chain wound around each bar and locked to the post but they removed the bars quietly by wrapping their serapes around the chain, to prevent the noise alarming the watchman. The steam engine was running day and night and the watchman had orders to go the rounds of the place every hour, day and night, but the Apaches were so skillful and secretive in their movements that not the least intimation of their presence on the place was observed—not even by the watchdogs which generally have a keen scent for Indians.

"At the break of day, the Apaches gave a whoop and disappeared with the entire herd, before the astonished gaze of five watchmen who were sleeping under a porch within thirty yards. A pursuit was organized as soon as possible but the pursuers ran into an ambuscade prepared by the retreating Apaches, when three were killed and two wounded. The rest returned without recovering any of the stock." (Parish, Thomas, History of Arizona, vol. 2, pp. 61-62.)

16. The story of the escape is told, not by the calendar keeper but by the widow of the former keeper, the captive's cousin.

17. The Papago rain ceremony consisted in brewing and drinking a beer made from the fruit of the giant cactus, accompanied by an elaborate ritual of singing, dancing, and recitation. (See Underhill, op. cit.)

18.Ash Tree Standing was one of the Pima villages. The Kuhatk, mentioned as taking part in this raid, were the northernmost of the Papago, nearest to the Pima and closely intermarried with them. The Pima stick mentions a joint raid of Pima and Papago in this year but says the two parties quarrelled and separated. (Russell, 6. 58.) The only acknowledgement the Papago make of Pima aid, is the mention of one Pima (see below).

19. The Lester B. Wooster ranch, near Tubac, was raided by Apache in the spring of 1871 and Mr. and Mrs. Wooster were killed. (Robinson, Will H., The Story of Arizona, Berryhill Co., Phoenix, 1918, p. 193.)

The Gadsden Purchase and their subsequent change of allegiance seem to have made little impression on the Papago, who generally do not distinguish between Spanish- and English-speaking Whites. (The mention of "pale Mexican," in the next paragraph is an exception.) Old people could be found, even in 1933, who supposed they were governed from Sonora.

20. The Camp Grant Massacre is thus described in the report of Vincent Colyer, sent to Arizona by President Grant as Indian Peace Commissioner, in 1872. In March, 1870, three hundred Arivaipa Apache had surrendered and were living at Camp Grant, in charge of Lieutenant Whitman. April 1, most of the soldiers at the post were taken on a long scout through the southern part of Arizona, leaving fifty men to garrison the post. Within four days a mob of Whites from Tucson, accompanied by Papagos, started out to kill the Arivaipa Apaches. Captain Penn, Fort Lowell, discovered the plot and sent a warning to Whitman but the messenger arrived too late. Whitman, sending a messenger to the Apache camp, found eighty-nme persons had been killed and twenty-nine children carried away. (Colyer, Vincent, "Peace with the Apaches," Report to the Board of Indian Commissioners, Washington, D. C., 1872. pp. 32-3.)

The raid is described from the point of view of the local Whites, by Lockwood, who says that Tucson residents had been outraged by constant Apache depredations, against which they received no government protection. They suspected the Arivaipa Apache of escaping from camp to make these raids. (Lockwood, pp. 165-6.)

W. S. Oury, one of the leaders of the raid, has left a circumstantial account in manuscript. His statement is that all the San Pedro valley had been terrorized for years by the Apache, and was about to be abandoned. Tucson residents, having made repeated appeals for government aid without result, were rendered desperate by the Wooster murder and resolved to march after the next outrage. This was a theft of cattle from San Xavier. The thieves were followed part way and one of them, who was killed, was recognized as an Apache from Camp Grant. Oury then consulted with Jesus M. Elias, a leader among the Spanish-speaking residents of Tucson, and Oury agreed to organize the English-speaking residents, while Elias organized the Spaniards. Oury could only collect six while Elias mustered forty-eight. Ninety-two Papagos joined them. Elias was elected commander. They started following the tracks of the Apache which apparently led toward Camp Grant, and Oury asked H. S. Stevens, of Tucson, to stop anyone using the main road which led there. The military commander, suspecting something from the absence of men in town, did send two soldiers with a warning, but both were held up. (Oury, Wm. S. (mss.) The Camp Grant Massacre.) Read before the Society of Arizona Pioneers, Tucson, April 6, 1885. (Archives of Ariz. Pioneers Hist. Soc., also Smith, C. C.. "A History of the Oury Family," Ibid. )

21. The attacking force consisted of ninety-two Papago, forty-eight Mexicans and six Americans (Robinson, pp. 193-4.) (Ouray, op. cit.)

22. Capt. Penn, of Fort Lowell.

23. The report of General O. O. Howard (footnote 24), says that all but four of the captured children were returned while he was at Camp Grant in May, 1872, the remaining four having found good homes with Mexican families. (Colyer, op. cit., pp. 818-319.) The Papago statement that the children were kept for years and then sold, is in disagreement with this. It is possible that the calendar keeper was filling a blank in his story with a description of the usual procedure, for while the Papago, as a rule, took no captives for fear of enemy magic, they had been tempted by the good prices offered in Mexico.

24. In 1872, after Vincent Colyer's return, General O. O. Howard was sent out by President Grant as his personal representative to find some way of stopping the Apache troubles. On May 21, 1872, he met at Camp Grant with representatives of Pima, Papago, and Arivaipa Apache and received their promises to keep the peace. There is an error in the Papago record at this point. The calendar keeper placed the meeting with General O. O. Howard in the same year with the raid on Camp Grant, whereas the first was in the spring of 1871 and the second in the spring of 1872. He says mistakenly, that General Howard's meeting was "before winter." The date has been corrected. As a consequence, a few discrepancies will be found, such as the calculating of the forty- and fifty-year marks. It has seemed best not to shift these since that would involve altering a series whose main dates are correct, e. g., the coming of the railroad, the quarrel over the wells and the Sonora earthquake. This material has been presented exactly as received.

25. At this time the Superintendent of Indian Affairs for Arizona Territory, was R. H. Bendel, with headquarters at Prescott, then the capital. At Howard's request, Bendel accompanied him through the territory. (Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1872, p. 813.)

26. A later report gives the name of the Papago delegate as Ascension, and says that the Papago kept their word about not going to war, but felt the injustice of having so many favors extended to the hostile Apache, while but few came to the peaceful Pima and Papago. Apache raids, whether by the Arivaipa or others, continued. (Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1872, p. 821.)

27. Dr. R. A. Wilbur was sub-agent for the Papago, under Bendel, from 1871 to 1874. (Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, p. 551.) He lived at Tucson. (Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1872, p. 814.) Bendel in this report speaks of his popularity and of his talking easily with the Papago in Spanish.

28. The twin hills on the road from Tucson to Sells.

29.The Arizona Citizen (Tucson, Sat., April 5, 1873) gives a version of this affair in which the thieves were Papagos, though not from San Xavier. "The Citizen of last Saturday referred to a rumor that Apaches had stolen the cattle herd of Elias Brothers from the vicinity of San Xavier. That day a report came in that the Papagos were the thieves and immediately Dr. Wilbur, Papago agent, started out to investigate it. When at San Xavier he advised the Papagos and told them he wanted some of them to accompany him on the trail. As soon as they could prepare some pinole, the party started with J. M. Elias. The trail was followed about 30 miles where all the cattle taken, about 15 head, had been abandoned. The trail of the Indians was followed into the mountains southward from Sacaton, where there is an Indian camp in which the ten guilty ones were found. They admitted the theft but said when out about 30 miles they repented of the theft and permitted the cattle to return, which they all did without injury. They say that they were in a starving condition and that other members of the tribe advised the theft as the only means of relief.

"From Dr. Wilbur's account, the Indians who did the stealing are mostly with the Pimas and in the Gila Valley and probably are Pimas and that they agreed to report their act to agent Stout. . . . Dr. Wilbur deserves credit for ferretting out this matter. . . . If there are tribes of Indians in existence worth the government bounty, the Papago is surely among the most deserving."

30. The Pima stick for this period mentions an epidemic of "shooting pains." Two shamans were killed to stop it. Russell, p. 55.

31. The Pima stick reports an epidemic of smallpox in 1876-7, the year before this. (Russell, op. cit., p. 55.) The Kiowa calendar, in 1877, reports epidemics of measles and fever. (Mooney, op. cit., p. 218.)

32.Lockwood says, "The Southern Pacific Sunset Route Line reached the west bank of the Colorado May 23, 1877, . . . It was not until March 20, 1880, that a coach rolled into Tucson." (Lockwood, op. cit., pp. 311-312.)

33. See note 24.

34. Ten years later, after a resident farmer had been put in charge of the Papagos at San Xavier, he complained bitterly of the liquor sale at Tucson and its evil effect on the Papago. "It is an easy matter for the Indians to obtain liquor in the city of Tucson, 9 miles from here . . . Today not less than 200 of the nomadic Indians have made their homes near Tucson . . . their main occupation is gambling and drinking . . . They can always obtain liquor easily, being where they can buy same. They have, of course, no trouble to induce the better Indians to drinking and gambling in order to get hold of his money. . . . they are a great detriment to the San Xavier allottees." (Farmer Berger in Report Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1901, p. 189.)

35. The Tucson papers, in 1873, had mentioned the Papago habit of gleaning and trading grain acquired. "The Papago women are first in bringing barley into market. They follow the reapers and gather up the heads that are left. In this way, each woman gathers from ten to thirty pounds per day and, after cleansing it nicely, they exchange it for flour and such other articles as they desire. If every one would work as hard to pay their way and save what would otherwise be lost, the world would be much richer than now." (TucsonCitizen.)

36. The incident is described in Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, p. 551, note. "In 1885, there was a threatened war between the United States and the Papagos in consequence of a quarrel about the possession of a spring. The Indians rescued a prisoner from the sheriff and a force of volunteers marched out from Tucson but an amicable arrangement was finally reached." (San Francisco Chronicle, May 9, 1885.) (Sacaton Record Union, May 18-20, 1885.)

37. The Sonora earthquake, occurring on May 3, 1887, shook down houses in northern Sonora and was felt strongly as far north as Tombstone, Arizona. (Goodfellow, G. E., "The Sonora Earthquake," Science, May 20, 1887, p. 483.)

38. The extra race, held immediately after the sing, in which the Hollow Place had won, did not even the score, because there had been no gifts and feasting. The challengers always expected to sing for their hosts and then to be feasted and supplied with gifts to take home. In this way they got back their investment of the year before when they had been challenged.

39. See note 23.

40. A reservation had been set apart for the Papago at San Xavier (1874) with a farmer, Berger, in charge. He thus describes this affair: "Formerly it (St. John's day) was the occasion of grand church ceremonials but of late it has become rather degenerated and is now the day, par excellence, for debauchery and orgies. Upon this day a Papago temporarily residing here while assisting the labor of the harvest stabbed and instantly killed one of the allottees while both were in a state of deep intoxication. Fortunately, this death befell the greatest drunkard and mischief maker upon the reservation, who was also the leader of the few malcontents mentioned above." (Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1893, p. 119.)

41. Reports do not mention the sending of children to Santa Fe. At this time there was a boarding school at Phoenix, and a day school at San Xavier. Papagos, seven years later, did make objection to having their children taken to Phoenix and "five of the objectors were arrested on a charge of resisting police and government employees. This broke to a great extent, their defiant and rebellious spirit." (Tucson Sentinel, Oct. 24, 1902.)

42. The only event corresponding to this is reported by Berger, the farmer at San Xavier, who says that some Papagos came from Sonora at the beginning of 1897, on account of trouble with the authorities. They recrossed the border to recover some of their cattle and twenty-five of them were arrested. The four leaders were brought before the United States court commissioner and held prisoners to appear before the next Grand Jury at Tucson. The other twenty-one were sent to the agency at Sacaton. Colonel Taggart, in charge there, requested Berger to get the four leaders out of jail in Tucson, because their health was suffering. Berger got the bail reduced and the men sent to Sacaton. (Report, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1898, pp. 128-129.) Berger's subsequent reports say nothing about the disposal of the case. It may have dragged on until 1902, when the Papagos report it. If so, the discrepancy in the Indian and White accounts is very noticeable.

43. The Papago pilgrimage to Magdalena, Sonora, took place every November until the Mexican churches were recently closed. This pilgrimage was a relic of very early Spanish times, when the "Desert Pimas," in their slack season, used to journey to the missions in the Altar valley, to work, receive instruction and likewise food. For the rest of the year, they had no religious instruction. Even after regular priests (Franciscans) had come to the Papago country, in 1911, there persisted a sect called Sonora Catholics, who did not go to church but made a yearly pilgrimage to Magdalena, so as to be there on St. Francis' day, combining attendance at mass with an indulgence in liquor not easy on the American side of the border.

44. The Irrigation Division of the Indian Service reported in 1919 that for the past seven years it had been doing effective work in providing wells and improving irrigation at San Xavier, using Papago employees.

45.Andrew M. Philipson was sub-agent for the Papagos from 1923-1933, residing at San Xavier. He wore glasses.

46. According to a member of the Tucson Rodeo Committee, Papagos first rode in 1924.

47. Since 1931, Miss Marie Gunst, of Tucson, has sponsored a commercial presentation of the Skipping Dance in midwinter, the proceeds going to the Indians.